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Water Softener

What is Hard Water ?

Water which contains excess hard salts like calcium and magnesium is called Hard water.

  • Calcium and magnesium are present in water in both carbonate and non-carbonate form.
  • Carbonate hardness is known as temporary hardness and non-carbonate hardness is known as permanent hardness.
  • Excess hardness is mostly present in deep bore well water.
  • Presence of hardness in ground water may be attributed to the sub-soil characteristics.
  • About 73% of India suffers from more than 150 ppm of hardness in water due to excessive magnesium and calcium salts.
  • Permissible hardness content in water as per the world health organization (WHO) standard is 50 ppm (parts per million)
  • Continuous usage of hard water for general purpose and consumption leads to various types of health hazards.

Hazards of Hardness

  • Causes scale deposits in pipes, taps, valves and other plumbing accessories thereby leading to clogging.
  • Causes residual deposites and scale build up on washing machines, water heaters, dish washers and other such home appliances.
  • Soaps and shampoos do not lather sufficiently.
  • Continuous usage of hard water for bathing leads to craggy hair, hair loss, dry and itchy skin.
  • Deteriorates and fades colour and life of clothes.
  • Leaves spots on kitchen utensils and expensive crystal / silver ware.
  • Increases consumption and reduces the cleaning power of soaps and detergents.
  • Causes kidney stone formation if used for consumption.
  • Spoils the natural taste of beverages and food.

The Softening Process

Water Softener in ChennaiSoftening is the process of bringing down the hardness content in the water. The design of the plant is based on two factors. Total hardness present in the water and the desired output between regeneration. In a softener, the salts which induce hardness in the water are substituted by another soft salt through a process termed as ion exchange.

Softening the water by ion exchange resin is also known as base exchange softening. It is the most common and probably the easiest method of removing hardness (ie., Ca and Mg) from water and render the water suitable for utility purposes. As the name implies, ion exchange is a process in which undesirable ions are exchanged for more desirable ions.

The softening process consists of passing raw water containing hardness through a bed of cationic (sulfonated polystyrene) resins supersaturated with sodium. In this process, the cationic resins used in the softener unit act as an exchange point where calcium and magnesium in the water are absorbed by the resins and the sodium present in the resins is let out. Calcium and magnesium both being divalent displace the monovalent sodium and gets attached to the resin. Raw water will continue to get softened till the resins get saturated with hard salts. After one service cycle, the resins have to be regenerated with brine (salt) solution. Softener resin is regenerated by sodium chloride of 10-15% concentrations. The brine solution stored in the dosing tank is injected into the softener through the ejector which in turn revitalizes the resins and the softener is now ready for the next service cycle. The concentrated sodium replaces the trapped calcium and magnesium ions which are discharged into the waste water. The excess salt and other impurities are washed out during the rinsing phase.

The selectivity of resin for divalent compound is more than that for monovalent ion. Higher molecular weight ion is preferred if both ions are of same valence. Ca ions having higher molecular weight is preferred over Mg ions and thus displaces the Mg ions further down the resin bed. Thus the top of the resin is enriched with Ca ion. Ca ions push the Mg ions down the column, which in turn pushes the Na ions. This cycle continues till the hardness starts leaching out of the unit. This is known as Exhaustion. The ions which appears first at the end of service cycle is predominantly Mg ions. The effluent hardness is less than 5 ppm for low TDS water but is about 1% of the total influent hardness in a co-flow-regenerated unit depending upon the regenerant level.

Chemical Reactions -Service
Ca (HCO 3 ) + Na 2 R = RCa  + NaHCO 3
CaSO 4 + Na 2 R = RCa  + Na 2 SO 4
MgCl2 + Na 2 R = RMg + NaCl

The Maintenance Process

Regeneration Process
After the softening process, the resins saturated with HARD SALTS have to be regenerated with Sodium Chloride-NaCl (iodine-free common salt) solution. The NaCl solution stored in the HDPE dosing tank is injected into the softener through the ejector in the reverse direction. The Sodium (SOFT SALT) present in the solution replaces the Calcium and Magnesium (HARD SALTS) in the resins.

Water Softener in ChennaiChemical Reaction - Regeneration
RCa + NaCl = RNa + CaCl2
RMg + NaCl = RNa + MgCl2

Rinse Process
Once the regeneration is over, fresh water is allowed to pass through the resin bed in the regular direction. This helps in gently washing out the excess salt and other physical impurities on the resins.

Air scour extended backwash
Ion exchange resin tends to break up after prolonged usage under varying flow and pressure conditions. This is known as attrition loss and is normally considered as 5-7% per annum. These resin fines if not removed tend to choke up the bed and increase the pressure drop across the bed. Thus the flow through the unit is reduced. The fines on the top of bed gets removed in normal backwash but some fines which go deep into the resin bed is not removed. To remove these fines extended backwash along with air scouring is given. This step is recommended based on the assessment done by our technical personnel.

General Features and Technical Information

The efficacy and durability of a filtration unit is ascertained based on the design basis, engineering accuracy, material of construction, media efficiency, prescribed usage and sound preventive maintenance.

Several vital factors determine the efficiency of a softener plant namely i. Quality and Quantity of the resins ii. Quantity of salt used for regeneration iii. Raw water hardness iv. Raw water temperature v. Optimization of flow rate

A softener unit consists of three major parts namely i. Shell, ii. Valve with Ejector Assembly and iii. Resin. The design / dimensions and the quantity of resin in the plant are highly formula-driven and are primarily based on the hardness content present in the water and the proposed output between regeneration (OBR) frequency.

Strong acid cation resin (sodium based) is used to facilitate the process. The resins are of cross-linked polystyrene gel type. Aquasoft softener comes with a regeneration system and brine tank. Both co-current and counter-current regeneration options are available based on the need and applications. In larger systems, a digital totalizer is also offered along with a brine preparation tank.

Aquasoft softeners are available in Stainless Steel (SS), Mild Steel with Rubber Lining inside and Epoxy Coating outside (MSRLEC), Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and Composite vessels. Multi-port valve makes the process highly user-friendly (Less Friction Co-efficient) with its single-point operations, controls and excellent seal capability preventing internal port leaks.

Advanced and robust PP strainers (Hub and Laterals, Bell Mouth type) ensure even distribution of the inlet water into the resin bed and proper collection of the softened water.

In case the raw water has turbidity and suspended solids more than the permissible limits, a Macro Filter should be given as pre-treatment to Softener. Macrofilter is an essential pre-treatment in large scale softeners.

All softener units are available as upflow and downflow in Manual, Semi-Automatic and Fully-Automatic versions.

Pre-engineered and standardized modular equipments are available for domestic and institutional requirements. For industrial applications and large scale operations, custom-designed filters can be fabricated and supplied.

All our products and components are manufactured / sourced under the most stringent quality control norms and tested to international quality standards in every aspect

AQUASOFT Softeners of less than 2000 LPH flow rate (RQ:100 ltrs) come with a One Year Comprehensive Guarantee which covers everything including the resin and also a Special Guarantee of 5 years for the vessel.

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES : Brine Preparation Tank, Brine Mixer Mechanism, Field-Mounted Digital Flow Meter / Totalizer, Glycerine Filled Pressure Gauges and a portable Hardness Test Kit.

A detailed analysis of the raw water will help us configure the right product.

General Applications

  • To remove high hardness content in ground water (open well and bore well) for domestic applications.
  • Pre-treatment to DM units.
  • In Hotels, Hospitals and Commercial Laundries.
  • In the recirculation of industrial and process water.
  • Industrial applications like boiler feed treatment, textile dye processing, cooling water Treatment, Air conditioning plants and other commercial applications.
  • Used as a pre-treatment to RO plants.

Important Note:

Softened water is not recommended for consumption, watering plants and lawns due to its high sodium content.

Water Softener in Chennai

Water Softener in Chennai

Water Softener in Chennai

Water Softener in Chennai

Water Softener in Chennai

Water Softener in Chennai