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Reverse Osmosis (RO)Purification Technology

Osmotic Process

Osmosis is a natural process, known for over 100 years on which RO systems are based. The walls of living cells are natural membranes. This results in selective permeability of the membrane wherein some materials can pass through but others cannot.

The semi-permeable nature of the membrane allows the water to pass much more readily than the dissolved minerals. Since the water in the less concentrated solution seeks to dilute the more concentrated solution, the water passing through the membrane generates a noticeable head difference between the two solutions. This head difference is a measure of the concentration difference of the two solutions and is referred to as the osmotic pressure difference. This head pressure, converted to the familiar pressure units of pounds per square inch (2.31 feet of water head equals 1 psi) allows the observation of a valuable rule of thumb.

When pressure is applied to the concentrated solution which is greater than the osmotic pressure difference, the direction of water passage through the membrane is reversed and the process that we refer to as RO is established. The membrane's ability to selectively pass water is unchanged and only the direction of the water flow is changed.

Osmotic pressure can be defined as the pressure and potential energy difference that exists between two solutions on either side of a semi-permeable membrane.


Reverse Osmosis System in Chennai Reverse Osmosis System in Chennai

Osmosis is a vital mechanism in the transport of fluid in living organisms. If two solutions with different ionic concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane then the water with the lower concentration of ionic substances flows towards the water with higher concentration of ionic substances and tries to equalize the concentration levels. This is the natural OSMOTIC PHENOMENON. Osmotic pressure is a property of the solution proportional to the amount of dissolved minerals present.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is reversing the natural osmosis pressure by applying sufficient external pressure to the more concentrated (contaminated) side. The water is forced through a synthetic semi-permeable membrane that allows only water (H2O) molecules by using external pressure. When pressure is applied to the concentrated solution pure water passes through the membrane by screening out dissolved salts and other contaminants and the reject is left behind to be drained out.